epicyclic gearbox

Within an epicyclic or planetary gear train, several spur gears distributed evenly around the circumference run between a gear with internal teeth and a gear with external teeth on a concentric orbit. The circulation of the spur gear occurs in analogy to the orbiting of the planets in the solar system. This is how planetary gears obtained their name.
The components of a planetary gear train can be split into four main constituents.
The housing with integrated internal teeth is actually a ring gear. In nearly all cases the casing is fixed. The generating sun pinion is certainly in the center of the ring gear, and is coaxially arranged in relation to the output. The sun pinion is usually attached to a clamping system to be able to give the mechanical link with the engine shaft. During operation, the planetary gears, which will be mounted on a planetary carrier, roll between your sunlight pinion and the band gear. The planetary carrier likewise represents the outcome shaft of the gearbox.
The sole reason for the planetary gears is to transfer the required torque. The amount of teeth does not have any effect on the tranny ratio of the gearbox. The number of planets may also vary. As the number of planetary gears raises, the distribution of the strain increases and therefore the torque which can be transmitted. Increasing the amount of tooth engagements also reduces the rolling electricity. Since only portion of the total outcome should be transmitted as rolling vitality, a planetary gear is incredibly efficient. The advantage of a planetary gear compared to a single spur gear lies in this load distribution. Hence, it is possible to transmit huge torques wit
h high efficiency with a compact design using planetary gears.
Provided that the ring gear includes a regular size, different ratios can be realized by varying the quantity of teeth of the sun gear and the number of tooth of the planetary gears. The smaller the sun equipment, the greater the ratio. Technically, a meaningful ratio range for a planetary level is approx. 3:1 to 10:1, since the planetary gears and sunlight gear are extremely tiny above and below these ratios. Bigger ratios can be obtained by connecting a lot of planetary phases in series in the same band gear. In this case, we speak of multi-stage gearboxes.
With planetary gearboxes the speeds and torques could be overlaid by having a ring gear that's not set but is driven in any direction of rotation. Additionally it is possible to repair the drive shaft to be able to grab the torque via the band gear. Planetary gearboxes have become extremely important in lots of areas of mechanical engineering.
They have grown to be particularly more developed in areas where high output levels and fast speeds must be transmitted with favorable mass inertia ratio adaptation. Large transmission ratios may also easily be achieved with planetary gearboxes. Because of their positive properties and compact style, the gearboxes have various potential uses in industrial applications.
The features of planetary gearboxes:
Coaxial arrangement of input shaft and output shaft
Load distribution to several planetary gears
High efficiency because of low rolling power
Almost unlimited transmission ratio options because of mixture of several planet stages
Suitable as planetary switching gear due to fixing this or that area of the gearbox
Possibility of use as overriding gearbox
Favorable volume output
Suitability for a variety of applications
Epicyclic gearbox can be an automatic type gearbox in which parallel shafts and gears arrangement from manual gear package are replaced with an increase of compact and more efficient sun and planetary kind of gears arrangement as well as the manual clutch from manual electric power train is replaced with hydro coupled clutch or torque convertor which in turn made the tranny automatic.
The thought of epicyclic gear box is extracted from the solar system which is considered to the perfect arrangement of objects.
The epicyclic gearbox usually comes with the P N R D S (Parking, Neutral, Reverse, Drive, Sport) modes which is obtained by fixing of sun and planetary gears in line with the need of the travel.
Components of Epicyclic Gearbox
1. Ring gear- It is a kind of gear which appears like a ring and have angular cut teethes at its inner surface ,and is located in outermost location in en epicyclic gearbox, the interior teethes of ring equipment is in regular mesh at outer point with the group of planetary gears ,it is also known as annular ring.
2. Sun gear- It is the gear with angular minimize teethes and is placed in the middle of the epicyclic gearbox; sunlight gear is in frequent mesh at inner stage with the planetary gears and can be connected with the source shaft of the epicyclic gear box.
One or more sunshine gears can be utilized for obtaining different output.
3. Planet gears- These are small gears used in between ring and sun gear , the teethes of the earth gears are in continuous mesh with the sun and the ring equipment at both the inner and outer items respectively.
The axis of the earth gears are mounted on the earth carrier which is carrying the output shaft of the epicyclic gearbox.
The planet gears can rotate about their axis and also can revolve between your ring and sunlight gear exactly like our solar system.
4. Planet carrier- It is a carrier fastened with the axis of the planet gears and is in charge of final tranny of the end result to the productivity shaft.
The planet gears rotate over the carrier and the revolution of the planetary gears causes rotation of the carrier.
5. Brake or clutch band- These devices used to fix the annular gear, sunlight gear and planetary gear and is managed by the brake or clutch of the vehicle.
Working of Epicyclic Gearbox
The working principle of the epicyclic gearbox is based on the fact the fixing any of the gears i.electronic. sun gear, planetary gears and annular equipment is done to obtain the needed torque or rate output. As fixing any of the above triggers the variation in gear ratios from huge torque to high acceleration. So let’s observe how these ratios are obtained
First gear ratio
This provide high torque ratios to the vehicle which helps the automobile to move from its initial state and is obtained by fixing the annular gear which in turn causes the earth carrier to rotate with the energy supplied to the sun gear.
Second gear ratio
This provides high speed ratios to the vehicle which helps the automobile to realize higher speed throughout a drive, these ratios are obtained by fixing the sun gear which in turn makes the planet carrier the driven member and annular the traveling member as a way to achieve high speed ratios.
Reverse gear ratio
This gear reverses the direction of the output shaft which in turn reverses the direction of the vehicle, this gear is achieved by fixing the earth gear carrier which makes the annular gear the driven member and the sun gear the driver member.
Note- More quickness or torque ratios can be achieved by increasing the quantity planet and sun gear in epicyclic gear package.
High-speed epicyclic gears could be built relatively tiny as the energy is distributed over several meshes. This outcomes in a low power to fat ratio and, together with lower pitch range velocity, brings about improved efficiency. The small gear diameters produce lower occasions of inertia, significantly minimizing acceleration and deceleration torque when beginning and braking.
The coaxial design permits smaller and for that reason more cost-effective foundations, enabling building costs to be kept low or entire generator sets to be integrated in containers.
Why epicyclic gearing is employed have been covered in this magazine, so we’ll expand on the topic in only a few places. Let’s begin by examining an essential aspect of any project: price. Epicyclic gearing is normally less costly, when tooled properly. Being an would not consider making a 100-piece lot of gears on an N/C milling machine with an application cutter or ball end mill, you need to not really consider making a 100-piece lot of epicyclic carriers on an N/C mill. To continue to keep carriers within fair manufacturing costs they must be made from castings and tooled on single-purpose devices with multiple cutters at the same time removing material.
Size is another component. Epicyclic gear units are used because they're smaller than offset gear sets since the load is certainly shared among the planed gears. This makes them lighter and more compact, versus countershaft gearboxes. As well, when configured correctly, epicyclic gear models are more efficient. The following example illustrates these rewards. Let’s believe that we’re creating a high-speed gearbox to gratify the following requirements:
• A turbine gives 6,000 horsepower at 16,000 RPM to the type shaft.
• The result from the gearbox must drive a generator at 900 RPM.
• The design life is to be 10,000 hours.
With these requirements at heart, let’s look at three practical solutions, one involving a single branch, two-stage helical gear set. A second solution takes the original gear collection and splits the two-stage decrease into two branches, and the third calls for using a two-level planetary or star epicyclic. In this instance, we chose the celebrity. Let’s examine each of these in greater detail, seeking at their ratios and resulting weights.
The first solution-a single branch, two-stage helical gear set-has two identical ratios, derived from taking the square root of the final ratio (7.70). Along the way of reviewing this solution we recognize its size and pounds is very large. To lessen the weight we after that explore the possibility of earning two branches of an identical arrangement, as observed in the second solutions. This cuts tooth loading and reduces both size and fat considerably . We finally arrive at our third alternative, which may be the two-stage star epicyclic. With three planets this equipment train minimizes tooth loading considerably from the primary approach, and a relatively smaller amount from answer two (see “methodology” at end, and Figure 6).
The unique design and style characteristics of epicyclic gears are a large part of why is them so useful, however these very characteristics can make developing them a challenge. Within the next sections we’ll explore relative speeds, torque splits, and meshing considerations. Our goal is to make it easy that you should understand and use epicyclic gearing’s unique design characteristics.
Relative Speeds
Let’s get started by looking at how relative speeds do the job in conjunction with different plans. In the star arrangement the carrier is fixed, and the relative speeds of the sun, planet, and ring are simply determined by the speed of 1 member and the amount of teeth in each gear.
In a planetary arrangement the ring gear is fixed, and planets orbit sunlight while rotating on earth shaft. In this set up the relative speeds of the sun and planets are determined by the number of teeth in each gear and the acceleration of the carrier.
Things get somewhat trickier whenever using coupled epicyclic gears, since relative speeds may not be intuitive. It is therefore imperative to always calculate the speed of the sun, planet, and ring in accordance with the carrier. Understand that even in a solar arrangement where the sunshine is fixed it includes a speed romantic relationship with the planet-it is not zero RPM at the mesh.
Torque Splits
When considering torque splits one assumes the torque to be divided among the planets similarly, but this might not be considered a valid assumption. Member support and the amount of planets determine the torque split represented by an “effective” quantity of planets. This number in epicyclic sets designed with two or three planets is in most cases equal to the actual number of planets. When more than three planets are used, however, the effective number of planets is at all times less than using the number of planets.
Let’s look in torque splits when it comes to set support and floating support of the people. With set support, all people are reinforced in bearings. The centers of the sun, ring, and carrier will not be coincident due to manufacturing tolerances. For that reason fewer planets will be simultaneously in mesh, resulting in a lower effective amount of planets sharing the strain. With floating support, a couple of associates are allowed a tiny amount of radial freedom or float, which allows the sun, band, and carrier to get a posture where their centers are coincident. This float could possibly be as little as .001-.002 in .. With floating support three planets will always be in mesh, producing a higher effective amount of planets sharing the load.
Multiple Mesh Considerations
At the moment let’s explore the multiple mesh considerations that should be made when designing epicyclic gears. 1st we must translate RPM into mesh velocities and determine the number of load application cycles per unit of time for each and every member. The first step in this determination is normally to calculate the speeds of each of the members relative to the carrier. For example, if the sun gear is rotating at +1700 RPM and the carrier is certainly rotating at +400 RPM the velocity of sunlight gear in accordance with the carrier is +1300 RPM, and the speeds of world and ring gears can be calculated by that swiftness and the numbers of teeth in each of the gears. The usage of symptoms to symbolize clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation is definitely important here. If the sun is rotating at +1700 RPM (clockwise) and the carrier is rotating -400 RPM (counter-clockwise), the relative quickness between the two people is normally +1700-(-400), or +2100 RPM.
The second step is to decide the number of load application cycles. Since the sun and ring gears mesh with multiple planets, the number of load cycles per revolution in accordance with the carrier will become equal to the amount of planets. The planets, nevertheless, will experience only 1 bi-directional load program per relative revolution. It meshes with the sun and ring, but the load is normally on opposite sides of one's teeth, resulting in one fully reversed tension cycle. Thus the earth is known as an idler, and the allowable pressure must be reduced 30 percent from the value for a unidirectional load software.
As noted previously mentioned, the torque on the epicyclic members is divided among the planets. In analyzing the stress and your life of the users we must look at the resultant loading at each mesh. We get the idea of torque per mesh to end up being relatively confusing in epicyclic equipment examination and prefer to look at the tangential load at each mesh. For example, in searching at the tangential load at the sun-planet mesh, we take the torque on the sun equipment and divide it by the powerful amount of planets and the working pitch radius. This tangential load, combined with the peripheral speed, is utilized to compute the power transmitted at each mesh and, altered by the strain cycles per revolution, the life span expectancy of each component.
Furthermore to these issues there can also be assembly complications that require addressing. For example, placing one planet ready between sun and band fixes the angular situation of the sun to the ring. Another planet(s) can now be assembled only in discreet locations where in fact the sun and ring could be concurrently involved. The “least mesh angle” from the first planet that will support simultaneous mesh of another planet is add up to 360° divided by the sum of the amounts of teeth in sunlight and the ring. Therefore, as a way to assemble extra planets, they must be spaced at multiples of this least mesh angle. If one desires to have equivalent spacing of the planets in a simple epicyclic set, planets may be spaced equally when the sum of the amount of teeth in sunlight and ring is divisible by the amount of planets to an integer. The same rules apply in a compound epicyclic, but the fixed coupling of the planets provides another degree of complexity, and proper planet spacing may require match marking of pearly whites.
With multiple components in mesh, losses must be considered at each mesh as a way to measure the efficiency of the unit. Electricity transmitted at each mesh, not input power, can be used to compute power damage. For simple epicyclic sets, the total power transmitted through the sun-world mesh and ring-planet mesh may be significantly less than input electricity. This is one of the reasons that easy planetary epicyclic pieces are more efficient than other reducer plans. In contrast, for most coupled epicyclic sets total power transmitted internally through each mesh could be greater than input power.
What of electricity at the mesh? For basic and compound epicyclic sets, calculate pitch collection velocities and tangential loads to compute electricity at each mesh. Values can be obtained from the planet torque relative rate, and the functioning pitch diameters with sun and band. Coupled epicyclic sets present more technical issues. Elements of two epicyclic pieces can be coupled 36 different ways using one insight, one end result, and one reaction. Some plans split the power, although some recirculate electrical power internally. For these types of epicyclic units, tangential loads at each mesh can only just be motivated through the use of free-body diagrams. Also, the components of two epicyclic sets can be coupled nine various ways in a string, using one suggestions, one output, and two reactions. Let’s look at some examples.
In the “split-power” coupled set shown in Figure 7, 85 percent of the transmitted power flows to band gear #1 and 15 percent to band gear #2. The result is that this coupled gear set could be scaled-down than series coupled units because the power is split between the two factors. When coupling epicyclic units in a string, 0 percent of the energy will end up being transmitted through each arranged.
Our next case in point depicts a established with “electrical power recirculation.” This gear set comes about when torque gets locked in the system in a manner similar to what happens in a “four-square” test process of vehicle travel axles. With the torque locked in the system, the hp at each mesh within the loop enhances as speed increases. As a result, this set will knowledge much higher electric power losses at each mesh, leading to significantly lower unit efficiency .
Physique 9 depicts a free-body diagram of an epicyclic arrangement that experiences vitality recirculation. A cursory evaluation of this free-physique diagram clarifies the 60 percent performance of the recirculating collection proven in Figure 8. Because the planets happen to be rigidly coupled with each other, the summation of forces on the two gears must the same zero. The power at sunlight gear mesh outcomes from the torque source to the sun gear. The drive at the second ring gear mesh effects from the productivity torque on the ring equipment. The ratio being 41.1:1, end result torque is 41.1 times input torque. Adjusting for a pitch radius difference of, say, 3:1, the push on the second planet will be around 14 times the pressure on the first planet at the sun gear mesh. For that reason, for the summation of forces to equate to zero, the tangential load at the first band gear must be approximately 13 instances the tangential load at the sun gear. If we assume the pitch series velocities to become the same at sunlight mesh and band mesh, the energy loss at the ring mesh will be roughly 13 times higher than the power loss at sunlight mesh .

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